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Construction Management And Planning Sengupta Pdf Free Download



The low-lying northern coast and Nile Delta region are a high priority for adaptation to climate change (UNDP, 2017865). The Egyptian government has committed 200 million USD to hard coastal protection at Alexandria and adopted integrated coastal zone management for the northern coast. Recent activities include integrating SLR risks within adaptation planning for social-ecological systems, with special focus on coastal urban areas, agriculture, migration and other human security dimensions (Government of Egypt, 2016866; UNDP, 2017867).




Construction Management And Planning Sengupta Pdf Free Download



Seabed dredging of sand and gravel can have negative impacts on marine ecosystems such as seagrass meadows and corals (Erftemeijer and Lewis III, 20061615; Erftemeijer et al., 20121616). Nourishment practices on sandy beaches have also been shown to have drawbacks for local ecosystems if local habitat factors are not taken into consideration when planning and implementing nourishment and maintenance (Speybroeck et al., 20061617). A further emerging issue is beach material scarcity mainly driven by demand of sand and gravel for construction, but also for beach and shore nourishment (Peduzzi, 20141618; Torres et al., 20171619), which makes sourcing the increasing volumes of beach materials required to sustain beaches in the face of SLR more expensive and challenging (Roelvink, 20151620).


In response, in a second generation of studies, several frameworks have been proposed and tested to advance scholarship on barriers to adaptation (Eisenack and Stecker, 2012; Barnett et al., 2015; Lehmann et al., 2015; Bisaro and Hinkel, 2016). A frequently used framework was developed by Moser and Ekstrom (2010) who identified and linked key barriers to certain stages of the policy process: understanding, planning and management stages. Moser and Ekstrom (2010) argue that conditions, such as the scope and scale of adaptation, have significant implications for which barriers are activated in the policy process, and how persistent and difficult they are to overcome. This and other frameworks have been applied in a diversity of contexts, providing valuable insights about the governance challenges involved in adapting to climate change and suggestions for improvement (Ekstrom and Moser, 2014; Rosendo et al., 2018; Thaler et al., 2019).


Cross-scale and cross-domain coordination: SLR creates new coordination problems across jurisdictional levels and domains, because impacts cut across scales, sectors and policy domains and responding often exceeds the capacities of local governments and communities (medium confidence; Araos et al., 2017; Termeer et al., 2017; Pinto et al., 2018; Clar, 2019; Clar and Steurer, 2019; Sections 4.3.2 and 4.4.2). Local responses are generally nested within a hierarchy of local, regional, national and international governance arrangements and cut across sectors (Cuevas, 2018; Chhetri et al., 2019; Clar, 2019). Furthermore responding to SLR is only one administrative priority amongst many, and the choice of SLR response is influenced by multiple co-existing functional responsibilities and perspectives (e.g., planning, emergency management, asset management and community development) that compete for legitimacy, further complicating the coordination challenge (Klein et al., 2016; Vij et al., 2017; Jones et al., 2019).


Irrespective of whether expected utility or robustness criteria are applied, there is high confidence that an effective way of dealing with large uncertainties is adaptive decision making (also called iterative decision making, adaptive planning or adaptive management), which maintains that decision and decision analysis should be conducted within an iterative policy cycle. This approach includes monitoring of sea level variables and evaluation of alternatives in this light in order to learn from past decisions and collect information to inform future decisions (Haasnoot et al., 20132175; Barnett et al., 20142176; Burch et al., 20142177; Jones et al., 20142178; Wise et al., 20142179; Kelly, 20152180; Lawrence and Haasnoot, 20172181). Such a staged approach is especially suitable for coastal adaptation due to the long lead and lifetimes of many coastal adaptation measures and the deep uncertainties in future sea levels (Hallegatte, 20092182; Kelly, 20152183). Prominent representatives of methods that entail this idea are Dynamic Adaptive Policy Pathways (Haasnoot et al., 20132184) and Dynamic Adaptation Planning (Walker et al., 20012185). An important prerequisite for any adaptive decision-making approach is a monitoring system that can detect sea level signals sufficiently early to enable the required responses (Hermans et al., 20172186; Haasnoot et al., 20182187; Stephens et al., 20182188). 350c69d7ab


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